The effects on bone cells of metal ions released from orthopaedic implants. A review
Valerio Sansone, Davide Pagani, and Marco Melato
The increasing use of orthopedic implants and, in particular, of hip and knee joint replacements for young and active patients, has stimulated interest and concern regarding the chronic, long-term effects of the materials used. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the adverse biologic reactions to metal particles released from orthopaedic implants in vivo and in vitro. More specifically, the purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current literature about the adverse effects of metal particles on bone cells and peri-implant bone.
Keywords: orthopaedic implants, metal ions, adverse effects, bone cells, osteolysis