Wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis is the primary cause of aseptic loosening, which is the most common reason for total hip arthroplasty (THA) failure in the med- and long term. Recent studies have suggested an important role of gut microbiota (GM) in modulating the host metabolism and immune system, leading to alterations in bone mass. Probiotic bacteria administered in adequate amounts can alter the composition of GM and confer health benefits to the host. Given the inflammatory osteolysis that occurs in wear debris-induced prosthesis loosening, we examined whether the probiotic Lactobacillus casei could reduce osteolysis in a mouse calvarial resorption model.
In this study, L. casei markedly protected mice from CoCrMo particles (CoPs)-induced osteolysis. Osteoclast gene markers and the number of osteoclasts were significantly decreased in L. casei-treated mice. Probiotic treatment decreased the M1-like macrophage phenotype indicated by downregulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased the M2-like macrophage phenotype indicated by upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and arginase.
Collectively, these results indicated that the L. casei treatment modulated the immune status and suppressed wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo.
Thus, probiotic treatment may represent a potential preventive and therapeutic approach to reduced wear debris-induced osteolysis